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The first shape is called coccus, plural cocci. Cells that have a cocci shape are spherical, resembling tiny balls. The 'strep' in strep throat actually refers to the bacterium Streptococcus, which exists in tiny, spherical cells. The second shape is bacillus, plural bacilli. These bacteria are shaped like small rods, longer than they are wide. A bacillus cell looks a lot like a pill. Have you ever heard of anthrax poisoning? Anthrax is caused by rod-shaped bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. Some bacilli bacteria have round ends, while others are square. It is important to note that the term 'bacillus' can describe the cell shape as well as bacteria in the genus Bacillus. The third bacterial shape is spiral. These bacterial cells are twisted in helices and resemble little corkscrews.
Resistance to bacterial infections is enhanced by phagocytic cells and an intact immune system. Initial resistance is due to nonspecific mechanisms. Specific immunity develops over time. Susceptibility to some infections is higher in the very young and the very old and in immunosuppressed patients. Bacterial infectivity results from a disturbance in the balance between bacterial virulence and host resistance. The “objective” of bacteria is to multiply rather than to cause disease; it is in the best interest of the bacteria not to kill the host. Numerous physical and chemical attributes of the host protect against bacterial infection. These defenses include the antibacterial factors in secretions covering mucosal surfaces and rapid rate of replacement of skin and mucosal epithelial cells.
Bacteria make up one of the three domains of life. It is part of the prokaryotic domain and is often referred to as Eubacteria to distinguish its domain from Archaebacteria or Archaea. Unlike eukaryotes, bacteria have nucleoids instead of nuclei. They are diverse metabolically, and their cell walls are composed of peptidoglycan. Bacteria are often found in tissue of other organisms, soils, or water surfaces. Bacteria have specific structural characteristics including a cell envelope, ribosomes, nucleoid, pili, and flagella. The term bacteria has been associated with many negative functions in life, such as human disease. However, bacteria are vital for many processes. In fact, many more bacteria cells exist than human cells in the body, especially on the skin and digestive tract. Bacteria are also important in the fields of biotechnology and gene therapy due to their possession of circular DNA called plasmids, which contain the genes that encode antibiotic resistance. It is also be used to produce food, such as yoghurt. As such the study of prokaryotic plasmids grants scientists a deeper understanding of the genes and proteins they encode.
Clinical Bacteriology is to assist the health care provider in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in laboratory procedures. Due to the variety of specimens submitted to the bacteriology laboratory, many of the steps related to the processing and workup of a specimen have remained manual. The specimen is inoculated onto an agar medium with plating protocols typically driven by the source of the specimen, the plates transferred manually to an incubator, the plates removed after a defined period of time and the culture examined by a technologist to look for potential pathogens. The cost of healthcare in many countries and the Affordable Care Act in the United States are collectively driving institutions to explore new and novel ways to provide continuous, quality care in a more affordable, efficient fashion. One of those options is to enhance efficiency and affordability is automation.
Bacterial genomics is a scientific discipline that concerns the genome, encompassing the entire hereditary information, of bacteria. Bacterial genomics can be used to study bacterial evolution or outbreaks of bacterial infections. Some bacteria can transfer to new host species, and this poses a risk to human health. Indeed, an estimated 60% of all human pathogens have originated from other animal species. Similarly human-to-animal transitions are recognized as a major threat to sustainable livestock production, and emerging pathogens impose an increasing burden on crop yield and global food security. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have enabled comparative genomic analyses of bacterial populations from multiple hosts. Such studies are providing new insights into the evolutionary processes that underpin the establishment of bacteria in new host niches. A better understanding of the genetic and mechanistic basis for bacterial host adaptation may reveal novel targets for controlling infection or inform the design of approaches to limit the emergence of new pathogens.
Animal Bacteriology uses various methods to trace veterinary pathogenic bacteria. This covers a wide field of knowledge comprising veterinary bacteriology, water microbiology and food bacteriology. Every year the bacteriological laboratory carries out 350,000 bacteriological tests referred to as classical culture methods. It collects information on the pathogens that endanger the livestock and knows their susceptibility for antibiotics. Clinical effectiveness studies, monitoring antibiotic resistance development, and collecting field isolates for antibiotic resistance tests are some of the studies that are concerned with animal bacteriology. In addition to the classic culture methods and microscopic studies, it uses serological ELISA, histological and molecular-biological (PCR) tests to detect pathogens and, if applicable, their toxins. For carrying out ELISA tests, animal bacteriology has a completely robotised laboratory with a capacity of 15,000 tests per day.
Veterinary Bacteriology is concerned with the outline of the current Bergey classification with a listing of the genera associated with animals and humans. It is important that the clinical microbiologist have some familiarity with the kinds of organisms encountered normally in and on animals. Such knowledge is necessary in the interpretation of the results of microbiologic examinations. Many potential pathogens and opportunistic organisms are included in this flora. The kinds and numbers of bacteria present vary greatly with different circumstances. The technical procedures employed to recover pathogenic organisms give a distorted idea of the kinds and numbers of bacteria present. The normal flora of domestic animals has not been studied in as much detail as that of human beings. The little information that is available and the firsthand experience in the diagnostic laboratory indicate a considerable similarity between the normal flora of humans and domestic animals.
Phytobacteriology is concerned with the studies of science of bacteriology and gives an overview of the diversity and versatility of complex bacteria. It then explains the characterization, identification and naming of complex bacteria and explores how bacteria can cause disease and how plants react to such disease. It also deals with the economic importance of bacterial diseases as well as strategies for their control and the reduction of crop losses, plant pathogenic bacteria and the diseases that they cause. Phytobacteriology deals with characterization, identification and naming of bacteria; how bacteria cause disease and how plants react to them; deals with the epidemiology of bacterial diseases; bacterial diseases and the strategies for controlling these and reducing crop losses; plant pathogenic bacteria and the corresponding plant diseases etc.
Medical Bacteriology and Immunology deal with the salient features of the development of bacteriology. It explores the food requirements of the bacteria as well as the elements necessary for the synthesis of the bacterial protoplasm and other numerous and complex factors involved in the reproduction of bacteria. It deals with as well the presence of antitoxins in the serum of an individual, which is an indication of increased resistance to infection with the homologous organism. And it deals with serological reactions that are most widely used, including agglutination, precipitation, and complement-fixation. Medical bacteriology is concerned with whether molecular or classical is now frequently practiced and researched by scientists rather than by medical practitioners.
Recent Emerging Diseases have become a concern worldwide as the factors like societal, technological, and environmental are having a dramatic effect on infectious diseases. The reemergence of existing old infectious diseases which include drug-resistant forms are also the causes to worry. Demographic, ecologic conditions and population growth, increasing poverty, people migrating to urban areas are some of the reasons for the rapid spread of infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are spread through tourists, immigrants, processed food, animals that transmit diseases. In response to the public and their good health, the epidemiologists in tandem with governments of the world should draw a strategy in this regard to control and prevent the spread of infectious diseases. On April 15 and April 17, 2009, novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) was identified in specimens obtained from two epidemiologically unlinked patients in the United States.
Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. The average EVD case fatality rate is around 50%. Case fatality rates have varied from 25% to 90% in past outbreaks. The first EVD outbreaks occurred in remote villages in Central Africa, near tropical rainforests. There is as yet no licensed treatment proven to neutralize the virus but a range of blood, immunological and drug therapies are under development. Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. People with Zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise or headache. These symptoms normally last for 2-7 days. There is scientific consensus that Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is multifactorial and intricate, and the clinical presentation of the condition varies greatly. Symptoms and severity depend on individual trigger factors and stage of the disease. The majority of atopic dermatitis patients are sufficiently treated with emollients in combination with existing topical or systemic therapies. Yet treatment failure with existing drugs and treatment options can be a significant clinical problem. New treatments are under development and the majority of these new drugs focus on targeting a skewed immune response in atopic dermatitis. Novel therapeutic approaches, which target the pathways involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, may provide a potentially more effective and less harmful approach to systemic therapy.
Medical microbiology, whether molecular or classical is now frequently practiced and researched by scientists. Medical microbiology cannot be seen in its full perspective without reference to the effects that pathogenic bacteria have on the host. The new molecular knowledge can be expected increasingly to influence medical bacteriology from its diagnostic beginning to its therapeutic aim by increasing the speed of the former and the range and specificity of the latter. It will also play an increasing part in reaching epidemiological and preventive objectives. It is interesting to contemplate the possibility that in future the targets of therapy may move from structural components of the bacterial cell to the mechanisms of pathogenesis, the ultimate causes of the disease syndromes as observed clinically.
Genomic sequencing and analysis are in a period of exponential growth. More than 60 eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes have been completely sequenced with analysis of more than 200 genome sequences currently under way. The nearly complete human genome sequence is the cornerstone of genome-based biology and provides the richest intellectual resource in the history of biology. The availability of entire genome sequences marks a new age in biology, because it has the potential to open innovative and efficient research avenues. Determination of entire genome sequences is only the first step in understanding the inner workings of an organism. The next critical step is to elucidate the functions of these sequences and give biochemical, physiological, and ecological meaning to the information. Sequence analysis indicates that the biological functions of substantial portions of complete genomes are unknown. Defining the role of each gene in the complex cellular machine and network is a formidable task.
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media including water, soil and subsurface material by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants. In many cases, bioremediation is less expensive and more sustainable than other remediation alternatives. Biological treatment is a similar approach used to treat wastes including wastewater, industrial waste and solid waste. Most bioremediation processes involves oxidation-reduction reactions where either an electron acceptor commonly oxygen is added to stimulate oxidation of a reduced pollutant hydrocarbons or an electron donor commonly an organic substrate is added to reduce oxidized pollutants such as nitrate, perchlorate, oxidized metals, chlorinated solvents, explosives and propellants. In both these approaches additional nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and pH buffers are added to optimize conditions for the microorganisms.
Water is pivotal to life. Relate degree satisfactory, sheltered and open give ought to be out there to all or any. Up access to safe drinking-water may wind up in key edges to wellbeing. Every exertion should be made to understand a drink quality as protected as feasible. A large number of us battle to gain admittance to safe water. A spotless and treated office to each house could likewise be the standard in Europe and North America, however in creating nations, access to each perfect water and sanitation don't appear to be the lead, and waterborne diseases square measure normal. 2 and a 0.5 billion people don't have any entrance to enhanced sanitation, and very one.5 million children kick the bucket each year from looseness of the bowels. The WHO, the mortality of water infections surpasses five million people p.a. From these, a great deal of those fifty square measure microorganism enteric contaminations, with irresistible ailment standing get into the essential place. The best microorganism chances square measure identified with substantial capacity of water that is sullied with human or creature dung. Squander matter releases in waterways and seawaters square measure the chief supply of fecal microorganisms, and additionally pathogens.
• Water Quality Assessment
• Analysis of Water Chemistry
• Advanced Water Treatments and waste water medicines
• Plans for Water Safety and Healthcare
Microbial Nanotechnology refers to the fabrication, manipulation and utilization of submicron objects particularly those between 1 and 100 nm. Physical and chemical sciences have developed tools and procedures to fabricate nanoscale entities with intriguing applications in electronics, material sciences and medicine. In the biomedical context the relevance of nanotechnology relies on the particular biophysical properties of nanoscale objects and their particular interaction with living beings such as high diffusion in organs and tissues, high surface-volume ratio, efficient uptake by mammalian cells and high biological impact in biological interfaces through mecano-transduction signaling and a spectrum of alternative cell activities and responses. The extraordinary bio-effectiveness of nanoparticles has in turn derived into a strong debate about their potential toxicity when directly exposed to the human body or released to the environment, which is still unsolved.
Environmental microbiology is the study of the composition and physiology of microbial communities in the environment. The environment in this case means the soil, water, air and sediments covering the planet and can also include the animals and plants that inhabit these areas. Environmental microbiology also includes the study of microorganisms that exist in artificial environments such as bioreactors. Molecular biology has revolutionized the study of microorganisms in the environment and improved our understanding of the composition, phylogeny, and physiology of microbial communities. The current molecular toolbox encompasses a range of DNA-based technologies and new methods for the study of RNA and proteins extracted from environmental samples.
The rare infectious diseases have been identified and they include Acanthamoeba keratitis, Auto-brewery syndrome, Clostridium sordellii, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Cysticercosis, Dracunculiasis, Fitz-Hugh–Curtis syndrome, Garre's sclerosing osteomyelitis, Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, Histoplasmosis, Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, Kuru disease, Laryngeal papillomatosis, Lemierre's syndrome, Parechovirus B, Malakoplakia, Mucormycosis, Naegleriasis, Nocardiosis, Postvaccinal encephalitis, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Progressive rubella panencephalitis, Progressive vaccinia, Q fever, Rat-bite fever, Scarlet fever, Sealpox, Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, Trichodysplasia spinulosa, and Whipple's disease and many more.
Increasing public awareness is vital in the fight against infectious diseases. Public awareness campaigns on spotting the signs and symptoms of infectious diseases and how to prevent them play a key role in helping to stop the spread of such infections. To help address this threat, researchers launched a public health campaign by distributing posters, leaflets and text messages to increase knowledge and understanding of the disease in a high risk regions around the world. Although such campaigns are often used it is rare to assess the effectiveness of such campaigns which is essential considering their cost and the time taken to undertake them. To assess the effectiveness of this campaign researchers returned to the country and worked with 600 targeted households in the original campaign area, and households from two districts who had not received any information on rabies.
Therapeutic Advancements in Vaccines and Immunotherapy deal with relating to advances in the fields of vaccinology and immunotherapy. It deals with both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination as well as an ever-growing repertoire of other immunotherapeutic interventions. It has a strong clinical immunological and translational focus. Current advances in vaccine technology deriving from the function of genetic engineering are now providing the liberty to target new diseases. The use of plasmid-based methods also has the capability to urge the production of reassortant vaccines. Global immunization against diseases has led to the abolish of smallpox and has almost complete elimination of many other infectious agents including those causing diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, and Haemophilus influenza type B invasive disease. However, three biggest killers such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, tuberculosis, and malaria have not yet been adequately concentrated by a vaccine effective enough to accomplish a similar result.